It hastens the loss of highly productive farmland, affects energy demand, alters the climate, modifies hydrologic and biogeochemical cycles, fragments habitats, and reduces biodiversity ( Seto et al., 2011) We see these effects on multiple levels. Pollution of the urban environment and its components is the total resultant of an excessive burden on the environment and the self-cleaning capacity. Causes of urban growth Although the process of urbanisation happens in both MEDCs and LEDCs , the fastest-growing cities in the world are in LEDCs. Urban Planning: definition, problems, and solutions. Decentralization flight of people and activities from the centre of …

More than half of the world’s population lives in urban areas.

Modernization: New technology upgrades the infrastructure of urban areas. The conversion of Earth’s land surface to urban uses is one of the most irreversible human impacts on the global biosphere. Urban sprawl - Urban sprawl - Alternatives to urban sprawl: Uncontrolled sprawling development does not occur in all communities. Urban Ecological Processes.

The major problems caused by urban growth are discussed below.

The Built environment report describes Australia's urban footprint, and the implications for air quality, water quality and the natural environment.. As Australia’s population grows, additional urban land is required, or existing land is used more intensely.

Urban land-cover change threatens biodiversity and affects ecosystem productivity through loss of habitat, biomass, and carbon storage. Indeed, in several institutional and academic settings, the use of the phrases ‘‘urban ecology’’ and ‘‘human ecology’’ explicitly link human behavior to the biological environment. A growing population puts increasing pressure on biodiversity when residential areas encroach on natural systems. Urban growth poses many problems, some of which are due to expansion of the population and some due to the physical expansion of the towns. Urbanization is a complex process, as many of its driving factors play into and give rise to one another. Europe, South and North America are the …

Several communities in Europe and North America have been proactive in combating the effects of urban sprawl.

International research on sustainable architecture ascertained the responsibilities of urban forms for buildings’ energy‐environmental performances, highlighting the necessity to broaden the field of intervention in urban design. Urban ecological analysis provides a framework for examining integrated human natural systems. Environmental problems in urban areas are growing especially in cities in developing countries. Summary: Urban Planning is a large-scale concept concerned with planning and development at all levels ( architectural, infrastructural, ecological, economic, and even political ). Urban ecology, the interdisciplinary study of ecological patterns and processes in towns and cities, is a rapidly developing field that can provide a scientific basis for the informed decision-making and planning needed to create both viable and sustainable cities.

It means whereby spatial distribution of people and activities change. The reasons for the growth of urban areas include: They include: Centralization clustering of economic and service functions.

1. Employment: Rural-urban migration has been going on for centuries, but it has not always been as great a problem as it is today. Due to the ongoing urbanisation and growth of the world’s population, there will be about 2.5 billion more people added to the urban …

However, despite projections that world urban populations will increase to nearly 5 billion by 2030, little is known about future locations, magnitudes, and rates of urban … The result of this process of growth and change is an uneven distribution of urbanisation across the globe.

Of greatest concern are the state of air quality, noise, and congestion.

Study Session 5 Urbanisation: Trends, Causes and Effects Introduction. Urban sprawl, also called sprawl or suburban sprawl, the rapid expansion of the geographic extent of cities and towns, often characterized by low-density residential housing, single-use zoning, and increased reliance on the private automobile for transportation. an important ecological process involved in the concentric zone theory, is the process by which a new category of people or type of land use gradually predominates in an area formerly dominated by another group or type of land use.

Better communication, medical facilities, and various social amenities can attract those from rural areas. By 2030, an additional 1.2 billion people are forecast in urban areas globally. Concentration tendency of people and activities to cluster together.

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