MALARIA. Here we attempt to trace the forms and impacts of malaria from a distant past through historical times to the present. Epidemiology of malaria • Malaria is widely distributed in tropics and subtropics of Africa, Asia and Latin America. The classic clinical presentation of P. falciparum malaria is high fevers accompanied by chills, rigors, sweats, and headache. In a group of 596 delivering Ghanaian women, the sensitivities of peripheral blood thick film microscopy, ICT Malaria P.f/P.v test, and PCR in detecting microscopically confirmed placental Plasmodium falciparum infection were 42, 80, and 97%, respectively. Epidemiology There were an estimated 207 million global cases of malaria in 2012 and at least 627,000 people died of malaria, mostly (over 90%) young children in sub-Saharan Africa. Environmental factors greatly enhances the spread and transmission of malaria because these climatic factors which are more prone in one part of the world than the other helps the female Anopheles mosquito (that harbours the Plasmodium parasite) to thrive and multiply successfully. Plasmodium falciparum generally presents days to weeks after initial exposure; however, in the partially immune population it may present several months or more after arrival. During our recent evolution, its influence has probably been greater than that of any other infectious agent. • P. malaria. Several factors affect the transmission of malaria and/or Plasmodium infection in human population. INTRODUCTION Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease of humans and other animals caused by protists (a type of microorganism) of the genus Plasmodium. • P. vivax. • Malaria affecting 400 million people word-wide. • P. ovale. Malaria is caused by 5 species of plasmodium: • P. falciparum (the most common and dangerous). Wolbachia Bacteria may make mosquitoes resistant to malaria parasite May 11, 2013 Acharya Tankeshwar 0 Malaria is a parasitic disease which is transmitted by the bite of infected female Anopheles mosquito which is harboring (carrying) Plasmodium spp ( protozoan responsible for malaria). Etiology Four Plasmodium species are responsible for human malaria These are P. falciparum, P. vivax, P. ovale and P. malariae. Malaria kills around 400,000 people per year worldwide and remains a leading cause of death in many tropical nations, particularly among young children. 5. • P. knowlesi. SUMMARY Malaria is among the oldest of diseases. In one form or another, it has infected and affected our ancestors since long before the origin of the human line. In a further attempt to wipe out diseases via genetic modification, scientists are now genetically modifying bacteria found within the mid-gut of mosquitoes in order to ‘wipe out malaria’.

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