Bowlby believed that there are four distinguishing characteristics of attachment: Proximity Maintenance - The desire to be near the people we are attached to. I would like here to focus on these aspects of Blatzian security theory In this article, we’ll look at the origins of this theory, the four attachment patterns and the four phases a child goes through to establish attachment. Bowlby’s attachment theory and Blatz’s security theory. Bowlby's colleague, Mary Ainsworth, initiated the scientific study of rearing influences on early attachment security to test his radical premise. Bowlby and Ainsworth worked independently of each other during their early careers, both were influenced by Freud and other psychoanalytic thinkers-directly in Bowlby’s case, indirectly in Ainsworth’s. Attachment theory is based on the joint work of J. Bowlby (1907–1991) and M. S. Ainsworth (1913– ). In this chapter, I document the origins of ideas that later became central to attachment theory. According to Bowlby, proximity-seeking to the attachment figure in the face of threat is the "set-goal" of the attachment behavioural system. Bowlby's studies in childhood development and "temperament" led him to the conclusion that a strong attachment to a caregiver provides a necessary sense of security and foundation. Attachment, according to Ainsworth (1963) is a “secure base from which to explore,” and this idea has since remained a fundamental principle of attachment theory. To Bowlby, attachment is what keeps a baby connected to his mother, considering the needs of the child that can only be satisfied by his parent. Attachment Theory – Bowlby & Ainsworth Attachment theory is a groundbreaking observation that explains the functions and importance of child-parent attachment. [ citation needed ] Bowlby's original account of a sensitivity period during which attachments can form of between six months and two to three years has been modified by later researchers.

Without such a relationship in place, Bowlby found that a great deal of developmental energy is expended in the search for stability and security.

; Safe Haven - Returning to the attachment figure for comfort and safety in the face of a fear or threat. Characteristics of Attachment . To me, the two positions were mutually enriching. In the partnership that John Bowlby and I have had in developing attachment theory and research over the years, certain of Blatz’s concepts became focal. According to Bowlby's Attachment Theory, attachment is a psychological connectedness that occurs between humans and lasts for a long period of time. Bowlby (1969/1982) subsequently described attachment as a unique relationship between an infant and his caregiver that is the foundation for further healthy development.

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